It is conservative to assume the discrepancy between the results of Dehecq, et al. Note that the PO. Hence, it is, possible that the present state of the Karakoram glacier will be changed by the surge activity. When the horizontal speed at P1, horizontal speed at P4 was still up to 0.5 m/day. (2018). Hisper Glacier is 52 Kilometers long. highest surge acceleration, P2 and P3 were located in the trunk in areas showing substantial acceleration, and P4 was located at the front of the high speed area. About 25% of glacier, surface has no effective offset observations, and about 80% of data gaps were due to the low correlation coef-, all geocoded into WGS84 coordinates, and then the ascending offset maps were resampled to the dimension, of descending offset maps. As the largest glacier in the Pamir Mountains, this glacier plays an important role for the regional glacier mass budget. At P2 and P3 the horizontal speeds in October, 2014 were already much higher than that in the quiescent phase and increased rapidly thereafter. Our elevation change data also depict the effect of a > 100 Mm ³ rock avalanche on Siachen Glacier ablation area in September 2010. After October 2015, they increased again and reached a second peak in January 2016 and, then decreased again. Hispar Glacier is a 49 km long glacier in the Karakoram Mountains of the (Northern Areas, Pakistan) which meets the 63 km long Biafo Glacier at the Hispar La Pass (mountain Pass) at an altitude of 5,128 m (16,824 feet) to create the world's longest glacial system outside of the polar regions. ow velocity of the Yutmaru tributary reached 1.1, 1.4, and 1.6 m/day, respectively. Based on, ndings and conclusions will facilitate better understanding of why and, 7,100 m (Rashid et al., 2018). Backgrounds: Landsat, 8 OLI images; red curve: boundary between the mass, ow and thickness changes, we deduced that this large, ows very slowly during the quiescent phase and was once considered to be a nonsurge glacier, uence with the trunk is located at the most active, 11d). long) meet at the 5151 m. Hispar Pass to form one of the longest glacial systems outside the polar regions. In the case of englacial cavities, the velocity. We used 15 m panchromatic band of Landsat 8 OLI from 2013 to 2017 to assess the changes in glacier velocity, glacier geomorphology and supraglacial water bodies. The vertical velocities generally vary with the horizontal velocities, because glaciers, However, in the three areas noted above the magnitudes of vertical acceleration were not consistent with, those of the horizontal acceleration but rather with altitude (upper reaches have higher altitudes). (2015). In addition, the. Generation and performance assessment. ed locations (denoted by yellow pentagrams in Figure 1). In this paper, we investigate TanDEM-X penetration depth over snow and ice on the Greenland ice sheet. aperture radar (SAR). However, basal meltwater accumulated again during the following four months, and correspondingly the trunk accelerated again after October 2015. In the cases of calculating the difference between the SRTM DEM (C, band), the difference in penetration depths of the C. DEMs. Subglacial, 415). In particular, the relation of backscatter intensity and interferometric coherence to penetration depth of the X-band InSAR signal is explored in order to improve the reliability of TanDEM-X elevation data. How much, Hewitt, K. (2005). Kamb, B., Raymond, C. F., Harrison, W. D., Engelhardt, H., Echelmeyer, K. A., Humphrey, sediment/bedrock interface: A new mechanism for rapid. A broad All rights reserved. As shown in Figure 11, obvious seasonal and annual glacier motion changes were observed during, 2014. As shown in Figures 6 and 9b2, during the recent surge, the, uctuations. Fowler, A. C., Murray, T., & Ng, F. S. L. (2001). Investigating the Recent Surge in the Monomah Glacier, Central Kunlun Mountain Range with Multiple S... Quantifying glacier mass change and its contribution to lake growths in Central Kunlun during 2000-2... Geodetic glacier mass balance (1975–1999) in the central Pamir using the SRTM DEM and KH-9 imagery. Anomalous glacier changes in the southeast of Tuomuer. 1894 Bagrot Hunza Nagyr and Hispar Glacier by Conway.jpg 11,016 × 7,128; 8.45 MB and one temporal gap of 72 days in ascending track (Figure 2). As the surge, front, resulting in uplift at the front. A new algorithm for surface deformation monitoring based, Berthier, E., & Brun, F. (2019). glacier area, elevation change, and velocity products derived from satellite data in the Glaciers_cci project. In the former situation the glacier accumulates substantial mass in some high, locations and then the subglacial temperature rises to the melting point (Fowler et al., 2001; Murray, et al., 2000; Murray et al., 2003). For the velocity estimation, correlation image analysis (CIAS) was used, which is based on normalized cross-correlation (NCC) of satellite data. During the recent surge, the high speed wave stopped at the con, butary with the trunk (see Figure 5E9), indicating that at this point the surge mass was blocked. for 27 glaciers with two or more surges, including 9 not previously reported. Consequently, the northern and, southern margins of the trunk showed prominent negative (downward) and positive (upward) displacement, velocities, respectively (note that the projection of downslope displacement to the vertical direction is, negative displacement). Correspondingly, the glacier, rst acceleration, the volume of subglacial cavities, ow velocity of the trunk did not increase, and the Hispar Glacier, ow velocity of the Hispar Glacier between October 2014 and, X images and SRTM DEM using the imaging geodetic method. 2.96, 1.68 and 0 m for firn/snow cover, bare ice and debris-covered areas, respectively. Karakoram. Multidimensional small baseline subset (MSBAS) for two. Combining these data with Landsat images indicated that movement of the glacier is sensitive to changes of Lake Merzbacher. Our results not only demonstrate that glacier meltwater has only a limited impact on the lake expansion in this region, but they also provide new evidence for the warming and wetting process of the climate in the northern part of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. ow velocity of the Hispar Glacier in the surge active phase. These errors are quite small compared to, the displacements that occurr during one SAR image interval (12 days) even in glacier quiescent phase, (~4 m on average), not to speak of that in glacier surge phase (~70 m on average). Prior to this study only two‐dimensional (2D) flow velocities having low temporal resolution were available for this glacier, providing inadequate information about its surge evolution. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres. We use a series of Global Navigation Satellite Systems observations from 2009 to 2016 and TanDEM-X elevation models from 2011 to 2016 to investigate recent elevation changes. This study analyses the behaviour of an actively surging glacier, Hispar, in Pakistan using remote sensing methods. The Sentinel, erate resolution (10 m), and wide coverage (290 km × 290 km) and therefore was used, of glacier delineation. Medium efforts (Level 2) require additional work but provide a more realistic assessment of product precision. likely explanation is that the upper zones had steeper bed slopes (see Figure 9b4). In July of 2005 our small group traversed the Biafo and Hispar Glaciers in the Karakoram Mountains of Northern Pakistan. Randolph glacier inventory, Rignot, E., Echelmeyer, K., & Krabill, W. (2001). The analyses showed a distinct relationship of backscatter intensity, coherence and penetration depth. The Food Safety and... Open-heart surgery comes with known risks and complications. Pakistan Karakoram Index K2 | Nanga Parbat | Gasherbrum I | Broad Peak 8,000ers:: 7000ers:: Mountains Worldwide:: Pakistan Climbing Info. Leprince, S., Barbot, S., Ayoub, F., & Avouac, J. of satellite images, application to ground deformation measurements. Furthermore, relative to L, length and therefore a weaker capability of penetrating into glacier surface. By August 2016, the speed had declined to that of the quiescent phase (<0.2 m/, P2 and P3. Bruce Miller, Steve Su, and I left the U.S. on July 11 for an attempt on unclimbed Pumari Chhish East (ca. a ⁻¹ for 1975–99. We hypothesize that sub- or englacial melt may be responsible for this intriguing behaviour. From the con-. Hence, it is very likely that initiation of the surge in the Yutmaru tributary was, because of saturated water pressure at the ice bed interface, which lifted the glacier and separated it from the, short intervals. Early 21st century glacier thickness changes, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 13,507. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JB900066, 290. https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-5-271-2011, 275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2017.08.038, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth, 3284. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2014.2349, , L18504. The Hispar Mustagh is a collection of big snowy peaks such as Trivor and Disteghal Sar , Mohmil Sar near the snout of the Hispar Glacier an a series of rock towers such as the Latok Group, Baintha Brakk, Sosbun Brakk, and more. To assess whether a warming climate will promote the occurrence of glacier surges, X CoSSC images were from the DLR via Project jiali_XTI_GLAC6767. Dehecq et al. Debris, information, including the surface features, local terrain, path of supraglacial runoff, surface elevation, One master image was selected for each track, and the other images were coregistered with it. Flow, thermal structure, and subglacial conditions of a surge, Copland, L., Sylvestre, T., Bishop, M. P., Shroder, J. F., Seong, Y. The added constraint reduced the condition, Corr software (Leprince et al., 2007) was used to obtain the east, lter was applied to reduce the residual noises. As shown in this study, an increase in surface meltwater may promote, glacier surge that potentially results in greater mass in the lower reaches, which then melts away. Hispar Glacier is a 49 km long glacier in the Karakoram Mountains of the (Northern Areas, Pakistan) which meets the 63 km long Biafo Glacier at the Hispar La Pass (mountain Pass) at an altitude of 5,128 m (16,824 feet) to create the world's longest glacial system outside of the polar regions. Despite slight overall mass changes, obvious thinning was observed on many exposed glacier feet. Prior to this study, only. Most. direction speed reached 6.8 m/day. This study indicates that the glacier melting can be effectively controlled if the rising trend of temperatures is reversed; furthermore, the land surface hydrological model should be calibrated with geodetic glacier mass balance measurement when it is used to simulate the streamflow trend in the headwater basin. Model errors were introduced by the, additional constraints and inversion method. r, K. H., Larsen, E., van der Meer, J., Ingólfsson, Ó., Krüger, J., Örn Benediktsson, Í., et al. The maximum vertical velocity (2.6 m/day) occurred in late May 2015. The 1 arcsec SRTM DEM (February 2000) was used to remove topographic effects on the SAR offset tracking, (Li et al., 2014; Sansosti et al., 2006) and to estimate glacier thickness, et al. Murray, T., Stuart, G. W., Miller, P. J., Woodward, J., Paul, F., Bolch, T., Briggs, K., Kääb, A., McMillan, M., McNabb, R., et al. ), Kääb, A., Berthier, E., Nuth, C., Gardelle, J., & Arnaud, Y. The final results revealed an overall mass balance of −0.16 ± 0.05 m w.e./a. Definition- an extended mass of ice formed by snow falling and accumulating over the years. We determined changes in glacier thickness, motion, and surface features in this region based on TanDEM-X, ALOS/PRISM, Sentinel-1A, and Landsat images. Therefore, the temporal resolution, cantly improved (Pepe et al., 2016; Samsonov & d'Oreye, 2012). However, as shown, 55 m in the former area and a thickening of approximately 30, 50 m, while its lower reaches thinned by approximately 20, uences with the Kunyang and Pumarikish tributaries also thinned by approximately, 50 m. Therefore, a clear division in thickness change occurred in the con, uence of the trunk with the Yutmaru tributary to its con, uence with the Kunyang tributary, thickening of, uence of the Yutmaru tributary with the trunk the ice thickness switched, 20 m occurred in its upper reaches. The strong capability of cold storage and the temperature drop in the early 21st century may account for the anomalous mass changes. Their basins cover 7,734 ± 271 km2 or ~43% of the total Karakoram The new DEM was generated by adding the height inverted from the unwrapped differential inter-, results, whereby the newly generated DEM was taken as the external DEM for simulating the topographic, The changes in glacier thickness were estimated by calculating the difference between the DEMs acquired at, different times. In V. P. Singh, P. Singh, & U. K. Haritashya (Eds. (2013). However, as the, rst, and the second deceleration was also weaker than the, rst. Moreover, ice calving begins when the lake water gradually lifts the ice dam. Quantifying glacier mass change and its contribution to lake growths in Central, Zhou, Y., Li, Z., & Li, J. Rapid advance of Pumarikish glacier, Yasuda, T., & Furuya, M. (2015). However, in. (2018) is near to the Hispar Glacier and the sizes of the, two glaciers are similar. The velocities of the glacier were up to 58 cm/day east, 70 cm/day north, and 113 cm/day vertically. After the limit of basal water pressure in the Yutmaru tributary was broken, the accumulated, potential energy was immediately converted into kinetic energy. Notably, the surging wave was transmitted toward the lower reaches and also. Some 221 surge-type and surge-like glaciers no, F., & Fornaro, G. (2006). Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Therefore, we speculate that the formation of a regular, ed, part of the meltwater stored beneath the glacier began to run off. ow velocities in July were obviously higher than that in August. This change strongly suggests that the surge of the Yutmaru tributary occurred prior to the trunk. The red rectangle in the inset panel shows the approximate location of the Hispar Glacier. There are superb views of many peaks including the Ogre at an altitude of 7,813m. (f) Derived from Sentinel, scale surge, there is a marked mass buildup in the reservoir zone. Therefore, the basal water pressure was high at this point, water pressure declined. The snowline at the end of ablation season can be deemed as a proxy of equilibrium line, differentiates the accumulation and ablation zones. Hence, the SRTM DEM can be, For our study, delineating the glacier boundary was fundamental to improvement of accuracy, error analy-, delineated the boundary of the Hispar Glacier in the false color Sentienal, ence to the Randolph Glacier Inventory 6.0 (RGI Consortium, 2017). Rankl, M., Kienholz, C., & Braun, M. (2014). The mass, from the Yutmaru tributary accelerated markedly along the northern margin of the trunk, generating strong, normal pressure to the trunk mass and forcing the southern margin to uplift. Glacier elevation and mass changes over the Central Karakoram region estimated from TanDEM. (2014). After drainage of the lake, flow velocities at the distributary, do not sharply decrease because pre-drainage mass loss needs to be replenished by fast flow. (2017). Brief communication: The Khurdopin glacier surge revisited. The penetration difference between C, tude rises from 3,500 to 6,000 m. In addition, the two TanDEM, (February and September). In two areas of the Yutmaru tributary that are ~8 and ~11 km from its con, the north and east direction velocities showed clear spatial variation (see Figures 6N5, 9b1, and 9b2). The penetration depth of. In particular, at the Yutmaru tributary and the middle trunk, the, Yutmaru tributary was higher than the trunk during September, We estimated the changes in thickness of the Hispar Glacier in the periods February 2000 to February 2013, which correspond to the surge quiescent and surge active phases, respectively. et al., 2011; Paul et al., 2015; Quincey et al., 2015; Rankl et al., 2014). Abdullahi, S., Wessel, B., Leichtle, T., Huber, M., Wohlfart, C., & Roth, A. As the precision of elevation, change measurements is correlated with terrain slope, we calculated the NMAD of observations in stable. Besides, we computed the changes in thickness of adjacent nonsurge, our images (marked by black triangles in Figure 12b). Round et al. Combining the results and geomorphologic features, we deduced that the recent surge was because of saturated basal water pressure in the Yutmaru tributary. Pepe, A., Solaro, G., Calo, F., & Dema, C. (2016). Thus, the time interval vector, set as the reference time, the time interval for, each image pair was the sum of parts of the elements in, image pairs and the number of elements of, circles represent the ascending and descending images, respectively. The mass from the, Yutmaru tributary squeezed into the trunk and rapidly, generating strong normal pressure to the trunk mass. Background: shaded SRTM DEM; black curve: glacier outline. The central Kunlun-KekeXili region is an ideal experimental field due to the wide distribution of glaciers and lakes. Red and blue circles represent the acquisition time of ascending and descending images, respectively. Kumar, R. (2011). (2011). Surge intervals are identified with the Kunyang tributary, the surging area extended >30 km along the trunk. class of surge-modified ice introduces indirect and post-surge effects that further complicate tracking However, basal meltwater accumulated again during the, following 4 months, and correspondingly, the trunk accelerated again after October 2015. Map of the Hispar Glacier Region of the Pakistan Karakoram. Slight glacier mass loss in the Karakoram region during the 1970s to 2000 revealed by KH. ow velocities in the Yutmaru tributary were similar to those in the middle trunk. Correspondingly, the glacier, velocity decreased from July to August. It covered a 4 km ² area with a thick debris layer that unexpectedly, led to locally enhanced glacier mass loss during the following years. Steve and Pete Takeda had attempted it in 2007, and the mountain was tried again in 2009 by Slawinski, Walsh, and Welsted. Rashid, I., Abdullah, T., Glasser, N. F., Naz, H., & Romshoo, S. A. (2018) to our study, area, because the glacier studied by Lambercht et al. Velocities toward the east were positive. In the bistatic imaging mode the temporal baseline of, band are up to 14, 10, and 8 m, respectively, 2A image and four Landsat images acquired in the ablation seasons were used to delineate the, 2A image is characterized by rich bands, mod-, The location and overview of the Hispar Glacier. However, the maximum horizontal and vertical speeds were <10% and <20% of. Education . The Pumarikish tributary showed an opposite pattern of thickness change: Its upper reaches. The features of the glacier, city changes, thickness changes, and geomorphic changes indicate that (1) the recent large, Hispar Glacier started in September 2014 and lasted until August 2016, (2) the surge of the Yutmaru tribu-, tary at high altitude triggered the surge in the Hispar Glacier trunk; (3) the surge of the Yutmaru tributary, was probably because of saturated water pressure at the interface between the ice and the bedrock; (4) during, the surge active phase the subglacial hydrological conditions varied with the input of meltwater, and there-, fore, the glacier velocity increased in winter but decreased in summer; and (5) the surge mass from the, erating strong normal pressure in the trunk and resulting in opposite vertical displacements at two margins, Abnormal glacier mass balance in the Karakoram Mountains has been widely reported in recent years, with. At P4 the, pattern of change in speed was quite different. uence with the Kunyang tributary had a substantial, ow increased correspondingly. trunk. type glaciers mentioned in section 5.2.2 are marked by the black triangles. In October 2014 the east direction velocity in the trunk near its con, velocity continued to increase. During the presurge phase, surface meltwater entered the Yutmaru tributary, and remained at its base. Media in category "Hispar Glacier" The following 14 files are in this category, out of 14 total. Wikipedia - Hispar Glacier . glacier (see Table S1 in supporting information). Multidimensional time, Samsonov, S. V., & d'Oreye, N. (2017). After the basal water pressure exceeded the threshold, overall basal sliding of, the Yutmaru tributary occurred in September 2014. (1987). The surge mass was blocked downstream in the trunk by the mass transferred from the Kunyang tributary, and consequently the glacier did not advance. Day 15 Trek to Yutmaru. A time series of the vertical velocity indicates that the glacier tongue has a huge englacial cavity. (2016) found in glacier accumulation zone of the Mont Blanc region that, the difference between February and October X, October 2013). ow velocities during the presurge phase were much higher than during the postsurge phase. The dramatic thinning to the east of this curve, d) Midstream surface geomorphologic changes in the Hispar Glacier. A glacier surge is a quasiperiodic phenomenon that involves active and quiescent phases (Cuffey &, Paterson, 2010; Harrison & Post, 2003). Background elevation data is from ASTER GDEM v2. 516. https://doi.org/10.1657/1938-4246-43.4.503, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied, 3882. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2016.2581482, 406. https://doi.org/10.3189/172756505781829250, (B9), 9111. https://doi.org/10.1029/JB092iB09p09111, wide glacier mass balances over the Pamir, 1028. https://doi.org/10.5194/tcd-7-975-2013, 340. https://doi.org/10.1659/0276-4741(2005)025[0332:TKAGEA]2.0.CO;2, 188. https://doi.org/10.3189/172756507782202829, 406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2009.02.0, dimensional surface displacements from InSAR measure-, 428). reported this phenomenon (Bolch et al., 2017; Hewitt, 2014; Paul, Strozzi, et al., 2017; Quincey et al., 2011; Rashid et al., 2018; Wake & Searle, 1993). (2018). The surge of Hispar also impacts the distribution of supraglacial debris causing folding of the medial moraines features present on the glacier surface. The glacier, cities are shown in section 5.1. The bottom horizontal lines with symbols show the temporal distribution of ascending and descending images. trunk and the Yutmaru tributaries, respectively. regions within each 3° glacial slope band and then took the glacier area weighted average as the estimate. In addition, before, However, from September to October 2014, the velocity in the former was considerably higher than in the. Samsonov, S. V., & d'Oreye, N. (2012). The main panel is a false-colored Sentinel-2A MSI image (20 July 2016). The final results revealed an overall mass balance of −0.16 ± 0.05 m w.e./a. From October 2014 to May 2015 the trunk, uence of the trunk with the Khani Basa tributary to its con, uence with the Yutmaru tributary. As this, part lies almost due south, the east direction velocities were near zero throughout the entire observation per-, iod. The images were acquired in interferometric wide (IW), imaging mode, which provides a spatial resolution of approximately 4 m × 14 m (ground range, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, direction × azimuth direction). increased precipitation thought to be the main reason (Bolch et al., 2017; Gardelle et al., 2013; Hewitt, 2005; Kääb et al., 2012; Zhou et al., 2017). However, the vertical speed in this area was less than 0.3 m/day. 1. As shown in Figure 1, P1 was located at the tributary showing the. Penetration depth of interferometric synthetic, Rizzoli, P., Martone, M., Gonzalez, C., Wecklich, C., Borla Tridon, D., Bräutigam, B., et al. This study provides a systematic overview on the factors influencing accuracy and precision of glacier area, elevation change (from altimetry and DEM differencing), and velocity products derived from satellite data, along with measures for calculating them. The method for retrieving the time series of 3. observations in ascending and descending tracks is described below. ow velocities and formation of a dammed lake in 2017. Satellite data provide a large range of information on glacier dynamics and changes. long) meet at the 5151 m. Hispar Pass to form one of the longest glacial systems outside the polar regions. 6,900m). Active phases range from some months to over 15 years. outline. Geometrical SAR image registration. The perpendicular baselines of image pairs taken to generate pixel, ranged from 0.4 to 166.9 m. Short perpendicular baselines and image intervals and consistent image, acquisition are favorable conditions for evaluating the evolution of large, used to estimate the change in glacier thickness prior to and following the recent surge (see Table S1 in sup-, the image pair approaches 0, and therefore, the SAR decorrelation caused by atmospheric changes and, ground changes is minimized. During the active phase, a large mass is transported from the glacier, reservoir zone to the receiving zone, and this occurs at a speed 10, cent phase (Harrison & Post, 2003). Better still, is there a way for surgeons to repeat practice on the minimally invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI)... Several glaciers in the Bukatage Massif are surge-type. The blue triangles and red circles represent the ascending and descending images, respectively. Once there we follow the flat glacier making straightforward walking. Referring to these, assumed a difference of 2 m between February and September X, lation zone. model with additional constraints was expressed as shown in Equation 12: squares principle (Pepe et al., 2016). Here I am at the Hispar La end, 40km from Hispar village. Within the trunk at approximately 20, ow direction changed multiple times. The main panel is a false-colored Sentinel-2A MSI image (20 July 2016). Thinning rates increased between 2000 and 2016 by a factor of 1.8 compared with 1928–2000, resulting in peak values of 1.5 m a ⁻¹ . The, surge mass was blocked downstream in the trunk by the mass transferred from the Kunyang tributary, and. a ⁻¹ for 2000 to 2011 and −0.51 ± 0.04 m w.e. for the study region (with a total glacier area of 967 km²). This highway of ice connects two ancient mountain kingdoms; Hunza in the west with Baltistan in the east. This study indicates that the glacier melting can be effectively controlled if the rising trend of temperatures is reversed; furthermore, the land surface hydrological model should be calibrated with geodetic glacier mass balance measurement when it is used to simulate the streamflow trend in the headwater basin. it is part of the world's longest glacial system outside polar regions, it is called Biafo-Hispar, both glaciers form a 100 kilometers long river of frozen ice.
2020 hispar glacier location